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Attention Apple Users

By George Lundberg III So you have run in to a problem with your Apple device, you have tried a few steps to fix it but to no avail, what do you do? Most people go back to where they got it from, the Apple Store. You get there and wait to see a technician and after they look it over they drop the worst news, you will have to replace it and there is nothing we can do about your data. But is this really true; is it your only option? While this may take some by shock, the truth of the matter is there is a good chance your device only needs a simple repair.   At Computrs Inc this case is all too familiar. Recently we have seen a trend in Apple store diagnostics where if it is not a “simple fix” then they either want you to replace the device or quote you an outrageous number to repair it. Having had many clients come to us with their supposedly un-repairable Apple computers our techs found the main issue to be that the hard drive had failed or gone bad. A day or two later with a new drive the client has their device back working just fine at a fraction of the cost they were quoted by Apple.   When it comes to fixing older models, Apple is known it be fussy and often seek to upgrade the user to the latest and greatest model rather than repair a few year old machine. This tactic catches so many people who simply just do not understand the problems they are having and only want to find a way to get back up and running. While Apple’s techs are more than happy to set you up with a new computer, they are of little use in getting any data off your thought to be broken computer. Again this is a lie that our techs at Computrs Inc discovered while helping a distraught client.   Our client came to us several days after visiting the Apple Store who had said the computer was dead and there was no way to retrieve the large amount of photos that were stored on there. After accessing the drive Cyber Security Analyst and Computer Technician Mario Silvera noticed that the drive was still functional enough to backup all the personal files that remained on the drive. A few hours of work later the client had their pictures back along with a working Mac Book.   When asked about his experience with Apple Customer Service Mario had this to say: “Apple is always looking to get the most they can out of their customers. They make claims such as your Mac cannot get viruses and while it is difficult to get viruses it is not impossible. My warning to any Apple user is to have your device checked by a secondary source before agreeing to what Apple recommends you do.” Mario, who has worked for Computrs Inc for several years, has seen a fair share of Apple technology and has had many successful repairs from hard drive installations to screen replacements. Many people believe with an Apple device they are protected and secured from harm but it some ways they are more prone to issues.   Is Apple always wrong in their assessment of a damaged machine, no, but the track record they have shows that at least some of their technicians would rather take the easy way out than spend some time actually fixing their companies products. Mac computers can be great machines and will last a long while with proper care and servicing. If any Apple user ever feels that the quote the Apple Store gave them was a bit steep, the computer technicians at Computrs Inc are more than happy to give you a second opinion on a repair for any and all Apple devices.


KNOWBE4 CYBERHEISTNEWS REPRINT Now and then, when I talk to the IT people in larger organizations, they tell me they experience political headwinds in trying to get an awareness program rolled out that includes simulated phishing attacks. They tell me that in their culture, it's a no-go to "trick" employees, as they might be made to look bad. Well, I understand where that perspective is coming from. However, let me give you some ammo here that you can use to enlighten your organization, help to create some cultural change in the direction of better security and prevent an enormous amount of damage, lost money, and IT heartache. 1) The viewpoint that employees should not be singled out comes from HR and Legal, and is basically correct, but you cannot apply that generally to IT security. In that area, it is an outdated and dangerous policy. Granted, you should never point to someone and embarrass them before other employees. However, there is a very workable (HR approved) strategy used by thousands of organizations in the U.S. to confidentially correct end-users who continue to click on phishing links and endanger your network. 2) If you don't send simulated phishing attacks to your users, sooner or later the bad guys will succeed with a real one. 3) Security software layers are porous, end-point antivirus and firewalls have years ago ceased to be effective. There is no perimeter left with BYOD, your employee is your perimeter. Today, you need a human firewall. 4) The bad guys have gone pro. They have very well equipped labs with the latest versions of the very security tools that you use yourself. They test, test, test until their new attack gets through and so they always have the advantage. 5) Untrained end-users that click on malicious links and open infected attachments cause malware infections. These days that is likely to be Cryptowall 4.0 ransomware which encrypts the workstation and/or network drives. The downtime is considerable. 6) When your Board members read on the front page of the Wall Street Journal that your customer database was hacked and is now being sold to other hackers on the dark web, they are going to ask some very pointed questions. Once it becomes clear that your organization did not deploy a simple, effective strategy that could have prevented this, quite a few (highly placed) heads will roll. Target's CEO is an example. Help your CEO to keep their job. 7) Legally you are required to act "reasonably" and take "appropriate" or "necessary" measures to cope with a threat. If you don't, you violate either compliance laws, regulations, or recent case law. The business must take into account the risk presented and do what is reasonable or necessary to mitigate that risk. From standards organizations like ISO and CERT to industry standards like the PCI DSS to governmental entities like the FFIEC, it is clear that implementing a security awareness program is both reasonable and appropriate. Put another way, the failure to have such a program would likely be unreasonable and inappropriate given the risks involved. Class action lawsuits that are always filed after a data breach are going to have a field day if that is the case. More about that in the next item below. 8) Your estimation of the percentage of your end-users that will not fall for a simple phishing attack is too low. We frequently hear a groan on the other end of the phone when the IT team sees the actual Phish-prone percentage of their users after they run our complimentary Phishing Security Test. The Five Steps To Phish Your Own Users 1) Get agreement from top management to do a small initial test. Just 100 people and see what the percentage is. That's great ammo for the next step, because everything over zero is too high and the average is 16%. 2) Once you know that around 16% of your users are Phish-prone, C-level execs and Board members wake up to the threat and ask what can be done about it. Get a quote for a subscription to an integrated platform that does both effective on-demand security awareness training and provides easy-to-manage simulated phishing attacks. 3) Let a C-level exec announce company-wide that a test was done and that the percentage of people clicking was too high. An awareness training program will be rolled out and part of that is that everyone from the mail room to the board room will be getting frequent simulated phishing attacks. People that continue to click on things they shouldn't will get remedial training. 4) Roll out the training campaign: on-demand, web-based interactive training featuring an expert who will teach them the dangers of the Internet and what they can do about it to stay safe. 5) Schedule frequent simulated phishing attacks using the hundreds of ready-to-send templates, and configure fully automatic remedial training for chronic clickers. And what is the first thing after the training that comes out of your end-user's mouth? "Wow, I did not know that it was that dangerous on the Net, how can I share this with my family?" And we're happy to say that we have the perfect answer for that, we have an awareness course for all your employees they can take at home with their family.

Computer Security – United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT)

I. Computer security A. What is computer security? Computer security is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of your computer. Prevention measures help you to stop unauthorized users (also known as "intruders") from accessing any part of your computer system. Detection helps you to determine whether or not someone attempted to break into your system, if they were successful, and what they may have done. B. Why should I care about computer security? We use computers for everything from banking and investing to shopping and communicating with others through email or chat programs. Although you may not consider your communications "top secret," you probably do not want strangers reading your email, using your computer to attack other systems, sending forged email from your computer, or examining personal information stored on your computer (such as financial statements). C. Who would want to break into my computer at home? Intruders (also referred to as hackers, attackers, or crackers) may not care about your identity. Often they want to gain control of your computer so they can use it to launch attacks on other computer systems. Having control of your computer gives them the ability to hide their true location as they launch attacks, often against high-profile computer systems such as government or financial systems. Even if you have a computer connected to the Internet only to play the latest games or to send email to friends and family, your computer may be a target. Intruders may be able to watch all your actions on the computer, or cause damage to your computer by reformatting your hard drive or changing your data. D. How easy is it to break into my computer? Unfortunately, intruders are always discovering new vulnerabilities (informally called "holes") to exploit in computer software. The complexity of software makes it increasingly difficult to thoroughly test the security of computer systems. When holes are discovered, computer vendors will usually develop patches to address the problem(s). However, it is up to you, the user, to obtain and install the patches, or correctly configure the software to operate more securely. Most of the incident reports of computer break-ins received at the CERT/CC could have been prevented if system administrators and users kept their computers up-to-date with patches and security fixes. Also, some software applications have default settings that allow other users to access your computer unless you change the settings to be more secure. Examples include chat programs that let outsiders execute commands on your computer or web browsers that could allow someone to place harmful programs on your computer that run when you click on them. II. Technology This section provides a basic introduction to the technologies that underlie the Internet. It was written with the novice end-user in mind and is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of all Internet-based technologies. Subsections provide a short overview of each topic. This section is a basic primer on the relevant technologies. For those who desire a deeper understanding of the concepts covered here, we include links to additional information. A. What does "broadband" mean? "Broadband" is the general term used to refer to high-speed network connections. In this context, Internet connections via cable modem and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) are frequently referred to as broadband Internet connections. "Bandwidth" is the term used to describe the relative speed of a network connection -- for example, most current dial-up modems can support a bandwidth of 56 kbps (thousand bits per second). There is no set bandwidth threshold required for a connection to be referred to as "broadband," but it is typical for connections in excess of 1 Megabit per second (Mbps) to be so named. B. What is cable modem access? A cable modem allows a single computer (or network of computers) to connect to the Internet via the cable TV network. The cable modem usually has an Ethernet LAN (Local Area Network) connection to the computer and is capable of speeds in excess of 5 Mbps. Typical speeds tend to be lower than the maximum, however, since cable providers turn entire neighborhoods into LANs that share the same bandwidth. Because of this "shared-medium" topology, cable modem users may experience somewhat slower network access during periods of peak demand and may be more susceptible to risks such as packet sniffing and unprotected windows shares than users with other types of connectivity. (See the "Computer security risks to home users" section of this document.) C. What is DSL access? Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet connectivity, unlike cable modem-based service, provides the user with dedicated bandwidth. However, the maximum bandwidth available to DSL users is usually lower than the maximum cable modem rate because of differences in their respective network technologies. Also, the "dedicated bandwidth" is only dedicated between your home and the DSL provider's central office -- the providers offer little or no guarantee of bandwidth all the way across the Internet. DSL access is not as susceptible to packet sniffing as cable modem access, but many of the other security risks we'll cover apply to both DSL and cable modem access. (See the "Computer security risks to home users" section of this document.) D. How are broadband services different from traditional dial-up services? Traditional dial-up Internet services are sometimes referred to as "dial-on-demand" services. That is, your computer only connects to the Internet when it has something to send, such as email or a request to load a web page. Once there is no more data to be sent, or after a certain amount of idle time, the computer disconnects the call. Also, in most cases each call connects to a pool of modems at the ISP, and since the modem IP addresses are dynamically assigned, your computer is usually assigned a different IP address on each call. As a result, it is more difficult (not impossible, just difficult) for an attacker to take advantage of vulnerable network services to take control of your computer. Broadband services are referred to as "always-on" services because there is no call setup when your computer has something to send. The computer is always on the network, ready to send or receive data through its network interface card (NIC). Since the connection is always up, your computer's IP address will change less frequently (if at all), thus making it more of a fixed target for attack. What's more, many broadband service providers use well-known IP addresses for home users. So while an attacker may not be able to single out your specific computer as belonging to you, they may at least be able to know that your service provider's broadband customers are within a certain address range, thereby making your computer a more likely target than it might have been otherwise. The table below shows a brief comparison of traditional dial-up and broadband services. Dial-up Broadband Connection type Dial on demand Always on IP address Changes on each call Static or infrequently changing Relative connection speed Low High Remote control potential Computer must be dialed in to control remotely Computer is always connected, so remote control can occur anytime ISP-provided security Little or none Little or none Table 1: Comparison of Dial-up and Broadband Services E. How is broadband access different from the network I use at work? Corporate and government networks are typically protected by many layers of security, ranging from network firewalls to encryption. In addition, they usually have support staff who maintain the security and availability of these network connections. Although your ISP is responsible for maintaining the services they provide to you, you probably won't have dedicated staff on hand to manage and operate your home network. You are ultimately responsible for your own computers. As a result, it is up to you to take reasonable precautions to secure your computers from accidental or intentional misuse. F. What is a protocol? A protocol is a well-defined specification that allows computers to communicate across a network. In a way, protocols define the "grammar" that computers can use to "talk" to each other. G. What is IP? IP stands for "Internet Protocol." It can be thought of as the common language of computers on the Internet. There are a number of detailed descriptions of IP given elsewhere, so we won't cover it in detail in this document. However, it is important to know a few things about IP in order to understand how to secure your computer. Here we'll cover IP addresses, static vs. dynamic addressing, NAT, and TCP and UDP Ports. An overview of TCP/IP can be found in the TCP/IP Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) at the following URLs: • • H. What is an IP address? IP addresses are analogous to telephone numbers -- when you want to call someone on the telephone, you must first know their telephone number. Similarly, when a computer on the Internet needs to send data to another computer, it must first know its IP address. IP addresses are typically shown as four numbers separated by decimal points, or "dots." For example, and are IP addresses. If you need to make a telephone call but you only know the person's name, you can look them up in the telephone directory (or call directory services) to get their telephone number. On the Internet, that directory is called the Domain Name System, or DNS for short. If you know the name of a server, say, and you type this into your web browser, your computer will then go ask its DNS server what the numeric IP address is that is associated with that name. Every computer on the Internet has an IP address associated with it that uniquely identifies it. However, that address may change over time, especially if the computer is •dialing into an Internet Service Provider (ISP) •connected behind a network firewall •connected to a broadband service using dynamic IP addressing I. What are static and dynamic addressing? Static IP addressing occurs when an ISP permanently assigns one or more IP addresses for each user. These addresses do not change over time. However, if a static address is assigned but not in use, it is effectively wasted. Since ISPs have a limited number of addresses allocated to them, they sometimes need to make more efficient use of their addresses. Dynamic IP addressing allows the ISP to efficiently utilize their address space. Using dynamic IP addressing, the IP addresses of individual user computers may change over time. If a dynamic address is not in use, it can be automatically reassigned to another computer as needed. J. What is NAT? Network Address Translation (NAT) provides a way to hide the IP addresses of a private network from the Internet while still allowing computers on that network to access the Internet. NAT can be used in many different ways, but one method frequently used by home users is called "masquerading." Using NAT masquerading, one or more devices on a LAN can be made to appear as a single IP address to the outside Internet. This allows for multiple computers in a home network to use a single cable modem or DSL connection without requiring the ISP to provide more than one IP address to the user. Using this method, the ISP-assigned IP address can be either static or dynamic. Most network firewalls support NAT masquerading. K. What are TCP and UDP ports? TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are both protocols that use IP. Whereas IP allows two computers to talk to each other across the Internet, TCP and UDP allow individual applications (also known as "services") on those computers to talk to each other. In the same way that a telephone number or physical mail box might be associated with more than one person, a computer might have multiple applications (e.g., email, file services, web services) running on the same IP address. Ports allow a computer to differentiate services such as email data from web data. A port is simply a number associated with each application that uniquely identifies that service on that computer. Both TCP and UDP use ports to identify services. Some common port numbers are 80 for web (HTTP), 25 for email (SMTP), and 53 for Domain Name System (DNS). L. What is a firewall? The Firewalls FAQ ( defines a firewall as "a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two networks." In the context of home networks, a firewall typically takes one of two forms: •Software firewall - specialized software running on an individual computer, or •Network firewall - a dedicated device designed to protect one or more computers. Both types of firewall allow the user to define access policies for inbound connections to the computers they are protecting. Many also provide the ability to control what services (ports) the protected computers are able to access on the Internet (outbound access). Most firewalls intended for home use come with pre-configured security policies from which the user chooses, and some allow the user to customize these policies for their specific needs. More information on firewalls can be found in the Additional resources section of this document. M. What does antivirus software do? There are a variety of antivirus software packages that operate in many different ways, depending on how the vendor chose to implement their software. What they have in common, though, is that they all look for patterns in the files or memory of your computer that indicate the possible presence of a known virus. Antivirus packages know what to look for through the use of virus profiles (sometimes called "signatures") provided by the vendor. New viruses are discovered daily. The effectiveness of antivirus software is dependent on having the latest virus profiles installed on your computer so that it can look for recently discovered viruses. It is important to keep these profiles up to date. III. Computer security risks to home users A. What is at risk? Information security is concerned with three main areas: •Confidentiality -- information should be available only to those who rightfully have access to it •Integrity -- information should be modified only by those who are authorized to do so •Availability -- information should be accessible to those who need it when they need it These concepts apply to home Internet users just as much as they would to any corporate or government network. You probably wouldn't let a stranger look through your important documents. In the same way, you may want to keep the tasks you perform on your computer confidential, whether it's tracking your investments or sending email messages to family and friends. Also, you should have some assurance that the information you enter into your computer remains intact and is available when you need it. Some security risks arise from the possibility of intentional misuse of your computer by intruders via the Internet. Others are risks that you would face even if you weren't connected to the Internet (e.g. hard disk failures, theft, power outages). The bad news is that you probably cannot plan for every possible risk. The good news is that you can take some simple steps to reduce the chance that you'll be affected by the most common threats -- and some of those steps help with both the intentional and accidental risks you're likely to face. Before we get to what you can do to protect your computer or home network, let's take a closer look at some of these risks. B. Intentional misuse of your computer The most common methods used by intruders to gain control of home computers are briefly described below. More detailed information is available by reviewing the URLs listed in the References section below. •Trojan horse programs •Back door and remote administration programs •Denial of service •Being an intermediary for another attack •Unprotected Windows shares •Mobile code (Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX) •Cross-site scripting •Email spoofing •Email-borne viruses •Hidden file extensions •Chat clients •Packet sniffing Trojan horse programs Trojan horse programs are a common way for intruders to trick you (sometimes referred to as "social engineering") into installing "back door" programs. These can allow intruders easy access to your computer without your knowledge, change your system configurations, or infect your computer with a computer virus. More information about Trojan horses can be found in the following document: Back door and remote administration programs On Windows computers, three tools commonly used by intruders to gain remote access to your computer are BackOrifice, Netbus, and SubSeven. These back door or remote administration programs, once installed, allow other people to access and control your computer. Denial of service Another form of attack is called a denial-of-service (DoS) attack. This type of attack causes your computer to crash or to become so busy processing data that you are unable to use it. In most cases, the latest patches will prevent the attack. The following documents describe denial-of-service attacks in greater detail. It is important to note that in addition to being the target of a denial-of-service attack, it is possible for your computer to be used as a participant in a denial-of-service attack on another system. Being an intermediary for another attack Intruders will frequently use compromised computers as launching pads for attacking other systems. An example of this is how distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) tools are used. The intruders install an "agent" (frequently through a Trojan horse program) that runs on the compromised computer awaiting further instructions. Then, when a number of agents are running on different computers, a single "handler" can instruct all of them to launch a denial-of-service attack on another system. Thus, the end target of the attack is not your own computer, but someone else's -- your computer is just a convenient tool in a larger attack. Unprotected Windows shares Unprotected Windows networking shares can be exploited by intruders in an automated way to place tools on large numbers of Windows-based computers attached to the Internet. Because site security on the Internet is interdependent, a compromised computer not only creates problems for the computer's owner, but it is also a threat to other sites on the Internet. The greater immediate risk to the Internet community is the potentially large number of computers attached to the Internet with unprotected Windows networking shares combined with distributed attack tools such as those described in Another threat includes malicious and destructive code, such as viruses or worms, which leverage unprotected Windows networking shares to propagate. One such example is the 911 worm described in There is great potential for the emergence of other intruder tools that leverage unprotected Windows networking shares on a widespread basis. Mobile code (Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX) There have been reports of problems with "mobile code" (e.g., Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX). These are programming languages that let web developers write code that is executed by your web browser. Although the code is generally useful, it can be used by intruders to gather information (such as which websites you visit) or to run malicious code on your computer. It is possible to disable Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX in your web browser. We recommend that you do so if you are browsing websites that you are not familiar with or do not trust. Also be aware of the risks involved in the use of mobile code within email programs. Many email programs use the same code as web browsers to display HTML. Thus, vulnerabilities that affect Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX are often applicable to email as well as web pages. More information on ActiveX security is available in Cross-site scripting A malicious web developer may attach a script to something sent to a website, such as a URL, an element in a form, or a database inquiry. Later, when the website responds to you, the malicious script is transferred to your browser. You can potentially expose your web browser to malicious scripts by •following links in web pages, email messages, or newsgroup postings without knowing what they link to •using interactive forms on an untrustworthy site •viewing online discussion groups, forums, or other dynamically generated pages where users can post text containing HTML tags More information regarding the risks posed by malicious code in web links can be found in CA-2000-02 Malicious HTML Tags Embedded in Client Web Requests. Email spoofing Email "spoofing" is when an email message appears to have originated from one source when it actually was sent from another source. Email spoofing is often an attempt to trick the user into making a damaging statement or releasing sensitive information (such as passwords). Spoofed email can range from harmless pranks to social engineering ploys. Examples of the latter include •email claiming to be from a system administrator requesting users to change their passwords to a specified string and threatening to suspend their account if they do not comply •email claiming to be from a person in authority requesting users to send them a copy of a password file or other sensitive information Note that while service providers may occasionally request that you change your password, they usually will not specify what you should change it to. Also, most legitimate service providers would never ask you to send them any password information via email. If you suspect that you may have received a spoofed email from someone with malicious intent, you should contact your service provider's support personnel immediately. Email-borne viruses Viruses and other types of malicious code are often spread as attachments to email messages. Before opening any attachments, be sure you know the source of the attachment. It is not enough that the mail originated from an address you recognize. The Melissa virus (see References) spread precisely because it originated from a familiar address. Also, malicious code might be distributed in amusing or enticing programs. Many recent viruses use these social engineering techniques to spread. Examples include •W32/Sircam -- •W32/Goner -- Never run a program unless you know it to be authored by a person or company that you trust. Also, don't send programs of unknown origin to your friends or coworkers simply because they are amusing -- they might contain a Trojan horse program. Hidden file extensions Windows operating systems contain an option to "Hide file extensions for known file types." The option is enabled by default, but a user may choose to disable this option in order to have file extensions displayed by Windows. Multiple email-borne viruses are known to exploit hidden file extensions. The first major attack that took advantage of a hidden file extension was the VBS/LoveLetter worm which contained an email attachment named "LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.TXT.vbs". Other malicious programs have since incorporated similar naming schemes. Examples include •Downloader (MySis.avi.exe or QuickFlick.mpg.exe) •VBS/Timofonica (TIMOFONICA.TXT.vbs) •VBS/CoolNote (COOL_NOTEPAD_DEMO.TXT.vbs) •VBS/OnTheFly (AnnaKournikova.jpg.vbs) The files attached to the email messages sent by these viruses may appear to be harmless text (.txt), MPEG (.mpg), AVI (.avi) or other file types when in fact the file is a malicious script or executable (.vbs or .exe, for example). Chat clients Internet chat applications, such as instant messaging applications and Internet Relay Chat (IRC) networks, provide a mechanism for information to be transmitted bi-directionally between computers on the Internet. Chat clients provide groups of individuals with the means to exchange dialog, web URLs, and in many cases, files of any type. Because many chat clients allow for the exchange of executable code, they present risks similar to those of email clients. As with email clients, care should be taken to limit the chat client's ability to execute downloaded files. As always, you should be wary of exchanging files with unknown parties. Packet sniffing A packet sniffer is a program that captures data from information packets as they travel over the network. That data may include user names, passwords, and proprietary information that travels over the network in clear text. With perhaps hundreds or thousands of passwords captured by the packet sniffer, intruders can launch widespread attacks on systems. Installing a packet sniffer does not necessarily require administrator-level access. Relative to DSL and traditional dial-up users, cable modem users have a higher risk of exposure to packet sniffers since entire neighborhoods of cable modem users are effectively part of the same LAN. A packet sniffer installed on any cable modem user's computer in a neighborhood may be able to capture data transmitted by any other cable modem in the same neighborhood. C. Accidents and other risks In addition to the risks associated with connecting your computer to the Internet, there are a number of risks that apply even if the computer has no network connections at all. Most of these risks are well known, so we won't go into much detail in this document, but it is important to note that the common practices associated with reducing these risks may also help reduce susceptibility to the network-based risks discussed above. Disk failure Recall that availability is one of the three key elements of information security. Although all stored data can become unavailable -- if the media it's stored on is physically damaged, destroyed, or lost -- data stored on hard disks is at higher risk due to the mechanical nature of the device. Hard disk crashes are a common cause of data loss on personal computers. Regular system backups are the only effective remedy. Power failure and surges Power problems (surges, blackouts, and brown-outs) can cause physical damage to a computer, inducing a hard disk crash or otherwise harming the electronic components of the computer. Common mitigation methods include using surge suppressors and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). Physical theft Physical theft of a computer, of course, results in the loss of confidentiality and availability, and (assuming the computer is ever recovered) makes the integrity of the data stored on the disk suspect. Regular system backups (with the backups stored somewhere away from the computer) allow for recovery of the data, but backups alone cannot address confidentiality. Cryptographic tools are available that can encrypt data stored on a computer's hard disk. The CERT/CC encourages the use of these tools if the computer contains sensitive data or is at high risk of theft (e.g., laptops or other portable computers). IV. Actions home users can take to protect their computer systems The CERT/CC recommends the following practices to home users: •Consult your system support personnel if you work from home •Use virus protection software •Use a firewall •Don't open unknown email attachments •Don't run programs of unknown origin •Disable hidden filename extensions •Keep all applications, including your operating system, patched •Turn off your computer or disconnect from the network when not in use •Disable Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX if possible •Disable scripting features in email programs •Make regular backups of critical data •Make a boot disk in case your computer is damaged or compromised Further discussion on each of these points is given below. Recommendations •Consult your system support personnel if you work from home If you use your broadband access to connect to your employer's network via a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or other means, your employer may have policies or procedures relating to the security of your home network. Be sure to consult with your employer's support personnel, as appropriate, before following any of the steps outlined in this document. •Use virus protection software The CERT/CC recommends the use of antivirus software on all Internet-connected computers. Be sure to keep your antivirus software up to date. Many antivirus packages support automatic updates of virus definitions. We recommend the use of these automatic updates when available. •Use a firewall We strongly recommend the use of some type of firewall product, such as a network appliance or a personal firewall software package. Intruders are constantly scanning home user systems for known vulnerabilities. Network firewalls (whether software or hardware-based) can provide some degree of protection against these attacks. However, no firewall can detect or stop all attacks, so it's not sufficient to install a firewall and then ignore all other security measures. •Don't open unknown email attachments Before opening any email attachments, be sure you know the source of the attachment. It is not enough that the mail originated from an address you recognize. The Melissa virus spread precisely because it originated from a familiar address. Malicious code might be distributed in amusing or enticing programs. If you must open an attachment before you can verify the source, we suggest the following procedure: 1.Be sure your virus definitions are up to date (see "Use virus protection software" above). 2.Save the file to your hard disk. 3.Scan the file using your antivirus software. 4.Open the file. For additional protection, you can disconnect your computer's network connection before opening the file. Following these steps will reduce, but not wholly eliminate, the chance that any malicious code contained in the attachment might spread from your computer to others. •Don't run programs of unknown origin Never run a program unless you know it to be authored by a person or company that you trust. Also, don't send programs of unknown origin to your friends or coworkers simply because they are amusing--they might contain a Trojan horse program. •Disable hidden filename extensions Windows operating systems contain an option to "Hide file extensions for known file types." The option is enabled by default, but you can disable this option in order to have file extensions displayed by Windows. After disabling this option, there are still some file extensions that, by default, will continue to remain hidden. There is a registry value which, if set, will cause Windows to hide certain file extensions regardless of user configuration choices elsewhere in the operating system. The "NeverShowExt" registry value is used to hide the extensions for basic Windows file types. For example, the ".LNK" extension associated with Windows shortcuts remains hidden even after a user has turned off the option to hide extensions. Specific instructions for disabling hidden file name extensions are given in •Keep all applications, including your operating system, patched Vendors will usually release patches for their software when a vulnerability has been discovered. Most product documentation offers a method to get updates and patches. You should be able to obtain updates from the vendor's website. Read the manuals or browse the vendor's website for more information. Some applications will automatically check for available updates, and many vendors offer automatic notification of updates via a mailing list. Look on your vendor's website for information about automatic notification. If no mailing list or other automated notification mechanism is offered, you may need to check periodically for updates. •Turn off your computer or disconnect from the network when not in use Turn off your computer or disconnect its Ethernet interface when you are not using it. An intruder cannot attack your computer if it is powered off or otherwise completely disconnected from the network. •Disable Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX if possible Be aware of the risks involved in the use of "mobile code" such as ActiveX, Java, and JavaScript. A malicious web developer may attach a script to something sent to a website, such as a URL, an element in a form, or a database inquiry. Later, when the website responds to you, the malicious script is transferred to your browser. The most significant impact of this vulnerability can be avoided by disabling all scripting languages. Turning off these options will keep you from being vulnerable to malicious scripts. However, it will limit the interaction you can have with some websites. Many legitimate sites use scripts running within the browser to add useful features. Disabling scripting may degrade the functionality of these sites. More information on ActiveX security, including recommendations for users who administer their own computers, is available in More information regarding the risks posed by malicious code in web links can be found in CA-2000-02 Malicious HTML Tags Embedded in Client Web Requests. •Disable scripting features in email programs Because many email programs use the same code as web browsers to display HTML, vulnerabilities that affect ActiveX, Java, and JavaScript are often applicable to email as well as web pages. Therefore, in addition to disabling scripting features in web browsers (see "Disable Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX if possible" above), we recommend that users also disable these features in their email programs. •Make regular backups of critical data Keep a copy of important files on removable media such as ZIP disks or recordable CD-ROM disks (CD-R or CD-RW disks). Use software backup tools if available, and store the backup disks somewhere away from the computer. •Make a boot disk in case your computer is damaged or compromised To aid in recovering from a security breach or hard disk failure, create a boot disk on a floppy disk, which will help when recovering a computer after such an event has occurred. Remember, however, you must create this disk before you have a security event.


COMPUTRS INC is pleased to announce all of our employees have successfully passed and received a certificate of completion for CyberSecurity. Cybersecurity is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access. In a computing context, the term security implies cybersecurity. One of the most problematic elements of cybersecurity is the quickly and constantly evolving nature of security risks. The traditional approach has been to focus most resources on the most crucial system components and protect against the biggest known threats, which necessitated leaving some less important system components undefended and some less dangerous risks not protected against. Security is important for anyone who saves data on their computer if they believe those files have a value either emotional or monetary. Contact us at 973-248-9500 for a free security audit on either your office or home network.

Treat yourself to a new PC for under $300.00

If you’ve had your computer for a few years or just got a budget one that’s kind of slow, I have a quick and relatively affordable way to add a new life (speed, that is) to it: replace the machine’s internal drive, the one that hosts the operating system, with a solid-state drive (SSD). The replacement process basically involves cloning the existing hard drive’s content to an SSD, then physically taking the hard drive out of the computer and putting the SSD in its place. With our technology consultants labor your settings, data, applications, and user profiles transfer over to the new drive. The increased speed comes in boot time dropping from 2 minutes to under 30 seconds. Applications such as Word and Excel open in less than 2 seconds while the internet comes up almost immediately. Our choice of SSD drives includes a 3 year warranty on the drive directly from the manufacture. This increase in speed works with desktop computers and laptops. Contract us at 973-248-9500 for a free quote on increasing your current computer or entire network’s speed.

Am I protected

Every business owner believes their computer system is protected. Most people believe the computer consultant or IT department backs up the data and applications daily. Failing to confirm the backup can have catastrophic implications. Nobody would ever expect a computer glitch to keep the business from running. However in our nearly 29 years in business there have been countless times we have been brought in to recover and often rebuild a computer system file structure. Until a crisis hits most businesses have no idea how good or bad their support has actually been. When everything is running there seems no reason to check the security measures that have been put in place. Our experience has proven that the right time to check the backup solution is when it is running fine and not to wait until the problem arises. Being proactive as opposed to reactive can be the difference between loosing sales, clients, even the entire business. There are many levels of protection for backing up data. The least expensive and easiest backup plan is to have a USB (Universal Serial Bus) external hard drive and actually run a manual backup These small but efficient drives are under $100.00 and often save clients hundreds or even thousands of dollars in data recovery fees. One level up would be a NAS (Network Attached Storage) drive. These external hard drives become another drive on the network which if properly configured can back up the data from each workstation and the file server. For home users or small networks these drives start at under $150.00. In conjunction with having either of the backup drives mentioned we also suggest having an offsite backup such as Mozy or Carbonite. These services are standard Cloud Based backup solutions which provide an additional level of protection in the event of a fire or server damage to the facility. Another issue to consider is replacing a backup drive every few years. These drives have an economic life cycle of 3-5 years. It has been our experience that they are not replaced as often as they should be. Our clients are often reminded to replace their backup drives every three years for their own protection. This also gives them an additional back which can be archived in another location. With the prevalence of computer virus infections or ransomware that steals your data it makes sense to protect your most valuable computer assets. Backing up data might seem like a small thing to do but it can pay off in the long run by keeping your most precious document or even keeping a business going. If you are not sure what your currently backing up the consider calling in an expert to check your backup. Nothing is worse than believing the backup is being done and finding out when you need those lost file you were not really getting a quality backup. Check the backup on a regular basis to avoid finding out you were not really doing a good backup.